Dead Pilgrims, Cranberries and a Fruitcake Recipe
December 28, 2006
Jacob Schor, ND
There are a number of dead pilgrims who have probably been rolling in their graves this past month. These days we link the two holidays, thanksgiving and Christmas: the Christmas season began of course the day after Thanksgiving. People wait to put up decorations until after they carve the turkey. This hesitation is still probably out of respect for the pilgrims. The pilgrims took a stern view on popular culture and adamantly opposed any Christmas festivities. In fact, Christmas celebrations were against the law in the early New England colonies. Taking the day off work was a punishable offense in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts . These famed forefathers would certainly be rolling in their graves to see present day America .
Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners have one thing in common and that is cranberries. We cook cranberries often this time of year; cranberry sauce is essential for both holiday tables. (I confess to not serving them with Chanukah latkes)
Like many other berries, cranberries are being researched for their health benefits and potential as adjunctive cancer drugs. There is little doubt that cranberries are useful in preventing urinary tract infections. A 2004 Cochrane meta-analysis of existing research confirmed that they worked in women but noted that good research had yet been published on whether capsules or berries were more effective or whether children could also benefit from use. [i] Studies from July 2006 [ii] and August 2006 [iii] have confirmed the protective effect in women.
In the last few years, several studies have examined cranberry's potential in treating cancer. In May 2004, the Journal of Agriculture and Food Science published a study conducted by UCLA researchers that examined the effect of various cranberry extracts on various cancer types. The various fractions were useful at inhibiting growth of colon, prostate, oral cancer cells. Growth inhibition varied from 60% to almost 100% and varied by cancer type. A less refined mixture of cranberry extract when compared to the individual constituent fractions produced greater inhibition than would be expected based on the inhibitory effects of the individual isolate fractions; something synergistic was going on. [iv]
In June 2004, the Journal of Nutrition published a study detailing the inhibitory effect of a particular cranberry extract on 8 different types of cancer cells. Prior to this study, the researchers had already shown that feeding lab animals cranberry presscake inhibited tumor growth. Presscake refers to the skin, seeds and sort of sawdust stuff leftover once cranberry juice has been squeezed out. Given how much cranberry juice Americans consume, there is a lot of cranberry presscake somewhere out there. Imagine how things would change if you could distill out a cancer drug from this presscake? [v]
The pursuit for useful things to sell from stuff in route to the dumpster has long been a challenge to food scientists. When I was a food science major thirty odd years ago, certain professors were held in awe for the ‘foods' they had invented from waste materials. The clean water act had put great incentive on industry to reduce food plant waste. The law forced the food industry to choose between paying to either properly dispose of manufacturing waste or figure out a way to use it. For example, rom this situation, Eggbeaters were born. Commercial bakeries use vast quantities of egg whites. If a yolk breaks while separating the egg, the white is ‘ruined' for use. Essentially Eggbeaters are egg whites that were accidentally contaminated with egg yolk. No longer useful for the baking industry, the yellowed whites were made to appear healthier and marketed to people concerned about cholesterol.
Bailey's Irish Cream recycled the whey left over from Irish Cheese making into something very sellable. Skim milk was once a waste material leftover from butter manufacture and flushed down the sewer. Oyster Juice, well you might not want to know what exactly where that comes from. The rule drilled into me was that, ‘if it hasn't touched the floor, it is still food. Once it touched the floor it is trash.' Public view of different materials change over time. One day's garbage is another day's caviar.
Keeping this in mind, we see an article published in June 2006 in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Science looking at seed flours and their antiproliferative effects on cancer. Food scientists from the University of Maryland tested ground flours made from the seeds of black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape. Where does one get an appreciable amount of any of these seeds? From food plants that make juice, jelly or wine. The seeds pile up and present a waste disposal problem. Cranberry seed flour had the highest level of alpha-linolenic acid of any of the seeds. Flour made from the seeds of Chardonnay grapes won the ORAC score with a value of 1076.4 per gram, which was 3-12 times higher than the other tested fruit seed flours. In addition, black raspberry, cranberry, and chardonnay grape seed flour extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects on colon cancer cells. All three tested seed flour extracts significantly slowed cell growth. Results like this point the way toward, “value-added use of these fruit seed flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal human health.” In plainer English, we may see today's garbage sold as nutritional supplements in the future. [vi]
Researchers from my alma mater, Cornell University 's Department of Food Science, had two separate and interesting studies published this past September. In one paper published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Scientists, they detail the various chemical fractions that can be isolated from cranberries. [vii] In a second paper, this one published in Cancer Letters, these fine Cornellians detailed their work exploring the mechanisms of cranberry's' anti cancer effect. They showed that, at least in breast cancer cells, cranberries slow the cell's ability to divide and at the same time stimulate apoptosis that is cellular suicide. [viii]
The most recent paper on cranberries and cancer is from the researchers at UCLA. Appearing in the December 2006 issue of the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, the paper is titled, Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry Extracts Inhibit Growth and Stimulate Apoptosis of Human Cancer Cells In Vitro.” The study reports that, “…. berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral, breast, colon, and prostate tumor cell lines…... With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis …….. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.” [ix]
To find useable quantities of raspberry and strawberry seeds, these researchers are probably looking at reducing the garbage output of a Smucker's jelly plant.
The question that seems to go unanswered in all of these ‘presscake' studies is whether more useful compounds might be obtained from the whole plant. Would a concentrate made from whole cranberries, raspberries or any of these other berries have more antitumor effect than extracts made waste materials leftover after food manufacture? The answer isn't obvious. Past research on pomegranates strongly suggest that the juice is the weakest product of the plant in terms of killing cancer cells. Might the same be true of these other fruits? The potency of various other pomegranate extracts is enhanced by fermentation. Current advertising promotes pomegranate juice, but Lansky's 2004 study in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention showed that fermented juices and fractions obtained from seeds and pericarp had nearly twice the anticancer effect of plain pomegranate juice. [x] The same may be true for these other waste materials. The answer is not clear.
Come back to dead pilgrims for a moment. The real lesson here is probably that time changes the way we view things. Celebrating Christmas was considered by our nation's first settlers as sacrilege but is today viewed quite differently. Likewise, in the food industry, one day's waste products may be similarly transformed; yesterday it was garbage but tomorrow it may become our most valued commodity, a nutritional supplement and health elixir used to fight cancer.
A fruitcake recipe
[despite all the jokes about fruitcake, I happen to like it]
mix these together and let sit in a covered glass bowl overnight.
beat until light:
slowly add while beating:
½ cup honey
½ cup molasses
1 TB instant coffee
1 teaspoon vanilla
Beat in the flour mixture then add
Bake in floured loaf pans for 65 to 75 minutes at 300 degrees. The top of the loaves should feel firm to pressure.
Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections.
Jepson RG ,
Mihaljevic L ,
Craig J .
Department of General Practice, Edinburgh University , 20 West Richmond Street , Edinburgh , UK , EH8 9DX.
BACKGROUND: Cranberries (particularly in the form of cranberry juice) have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of cranberries in preventing such infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry juice and other cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic databases and the Internet were searched using English and non English language terms; companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations were contacted; reference lists of review articles and relevant trials were searched. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL - the Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2003) was searched in February 2003. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi randomised controlled trials of cranberry juice/products for the prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations. Trials of men, women or children were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed and extracted information. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (urinary tract infections (symptomatic and asymptomatic), side effects and adherence to therapy). RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials met the inclusion criteria (four cross-over, three parallel group). The effectiveness of cranberry juice (or cranberry-lingonberry juice) versus placebo juice or water was evaluated in six trials, and the effectiveness of cranberries tablets versus placebo was evaluated in two trials (one study evaluated both juice and tablets). In two good quality RCTs, cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of UTIs at twelve months (RR 0.61 95% CI:0.40 to 0.91) compared with placebo/control in women. One trial gave 7.5 g cranberry concentrate daily (in 50 ml), the other gave 1:30 concentrate given either in 250 ml juice or in tablet form. There was no significant difference in the incidence of UTIs between cranberry juice versus cranberry capsules (RR 1.11 95% CI:0.49 to 2.50). Five trials were not included in the meta-analyses due to methodological flaws or lack of available data. However, only one reported a significant result for the outcome of symptomatic UTIs. Side effects were common in all trials, and dropouts/withdrawals in several of the trials were high. REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence from two good quality RCTs that cranberry juice may decrease the number of symptomatic UTIs over a 12 month period in women. If it is effective for other groups such as children and elderly men and women is not clear. The large number of dropouts/withdrawals from some of the trials indicates that cranberry juice may not be acceptable over long periods of time. In addition it is not clear what is the optimum dosage or method of administration (e.g. juice or tablets). Further properly designed trials with relevant outcomes are needed.
PMID: 15106157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Use of cranberry in chronic urinary tract infections]
[Article in French]
Bruyere F .
Service d'urologie, CHRU Bretonneau, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37044 Tours , France . email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cystitis in women is frequent and difficult to treat. Up to now, an empirical prescription of antibiotics could decrease the frequency of acute episodes but with adverse effects and increasing risks of resistance. Studies have shown that cranberries should be used for that indication. We made a systematic review of literature to demonstrate how to use the cranberry. RESULTS: Randomized studies confirmed that the proanthocyanidin contained in cranberries can eliminate Escherichia coli adhesion to the urothelium. Clinical studies showed that the incidence of acute cystitis decreased when treated by cranberries. On the other hand, patients with a neurogenic bladder and intermittent catheterization do not seem to benefit from the fruit. We did not find any study on postcoital use of cranberries. Various substances and doses were used in these studies and we could not conclude on best galenic presentation to prescribe. CONCLUSION: Cranberries can inhibit E. coli adhesion to the urothelium and could be useful to treat urinary infections. Clinical studies confirm the probable benefit of this fruit as a prophylactic treatment for female cystitis. Prescriptions modalities remain to be defined.
PMID: 16857334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cranberry and urinary tract infections: slightly fewer episodes in young women, but watch out for interactions.
[No authors listed]
(1) Female urinary tract infections are common and often recurrent. Food supplements based on cranberries are said to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections. (2) Two randomised controlled trials involving a total of about 300 young women showed that daily use of cranberry juice or tablets reduced the relapse rate for acute cystitis: on average, treating 100 women for one year prevented at least 1 urinary tract infection in 15 to 33 women. The daily doses were 7.5 g of concentrate in 50 ml of water, 750 ml of juice, or two tablets of concentrate. (3) In elderly patients, 2 trials of cranberry-based products in hospitals or nursing homes showed a small reduction in the frequency of relapses. (4) Adverse effects appear to be negligible. However, several case reports of interactions with warfarin have been published, including one involving severe bleeding. Patients on vitamin K antagonists must be warned about this risk of interactions so that they avoid consuming cranberry-based products without medical supervision.
PMID: 16989032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines.
Seeram NP ,
Adams LS ,
Hardy ML ,
Heber D .
Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California , Los Angeles , California 90095 , USA .
Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals that include flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and organic and phenolic acids. Using C-18 and Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20 column chromatography, HPLC, and tandem LC-ES/MS, the total cranberry extract (TCE) has been analyzed, quantified, and separated into fractions enriched in sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins (39.4, 30.0, 10.6, 5.5, and 1.2% composition, respectively). Using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay, the antiproliferative effects of TCE (200 microg/mL) versus all fractions were evaluated against human oral (KB, CAL27), colon (HT-29, HCT116, SW480, SW620), and prostate (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, 22Rv1) cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol fraction was the most active fraction against all cell lines with 96.1 and 95% inhibition of KB and CAL27 oral cancer cells, respectively. For the colon cancer cells, the antiproliferative activity of this fraction was greater against HCT116 (92.1%) than against HT-29 (61.1%), SW480 (60%), and SW620 (63%). TCE and all fractions showed >/=50% antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells with total polyphenols being the most active fraction (RWPE-1, 95%; RWPE-2, 95%; 22Rv1, 99.6%). Cranberry sugars (78.8 microg/mL) did not inhibit the proliferation of any cancer cell lines. The enhanced antiproliferative activity of total polyphenols compared to TCE and its individual phytochemicals suggests synergistic or additive antiproliferative interactions of the anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonol glycosides within the cranberry extract.
PMID: 15113149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines.
Ferguson PJ ,
Kurowska E ,
Freeman DJ ,
Chambers AF ,
Koropatnick DJ .
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario , London , ON , Canada . firstname.lastname@example.org
In light of the continuing need for effective anticancer agents, and the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with reduced cancer risk, edible plants are increasingly being considered as sources of anticancer drugs. Cranberry presscake (the material remaining after squeezing juice from the berries), when fed to mice bearing human breast tumor MDA-MB-435 cells, was shown previously to decrease the growth and metastasis of tumors. Therefore, further studies were undertaken to isolate the components of cranberry that contributed to this anticancer activity, and determine the mechanisms by which they inhibited proliferation. Using standard chromatographic techniques, a warm-water extract of cranberry presscake was fractionated, and an acidified methanol eluate (Fraction 6, or Fr6) containing flavonoids demonstrated antiproliferative activity. The extract inhibited proliferation of 8 human tumor cell lines of multiple origins. The androgen-dependent prostate cell line LNCaP was the most sensitive of those tested (10 mg/L Fr6 inhibited its growth by 50%), and the estrogen-independent breast line MDA-MB-435 and the androgen-independent prostate line DU145 were the least sensitive (250 mg/L Fr6 inhibited their growth by 50%). Other human tumor lines originating from breast (MCF-7), skin (SK-MEL-5), colon (HT-29), lung (DMS114), and brain (U87) had intermediate sensitivity to Fr6. Using flow cytometric analyses of DNA distribution (cell cycle) and annexin V-positivity (apoptosis), Fr6 was shown in MDA-MB-435 cells to block cell cycle progression (P < 0.05) and induce cells to undergo apoptosis (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Fr6 is potentially a source of a novel anticancer agent.
PMID: 15173424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.
Parry J ,
Su L ,
Moore J ,
Cheng Z ,
Luther M ,
Rao JN ,
Wang JY ,
Yu LL .
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland , College Park , Maryland 20742 , USA .
Seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were examined for their total fat content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), radical scavenging capacities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and stable DPPH radicals, chelating capacity against Fe(2+), and antiproliferative activities using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Significant levels of fat were detected in the fruit seed flours and their fatty acid profiles may differ from those of the respective seed oils. Cranberry seed flour had the highest level of alpha-linolenic acid (30.9 g/100 g fat) and the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.2/1). The ORAC value of the chardonnay seed flour was 1076.4 Trolox equivalents mumol/g flour, and its TPC was 186.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g flour. These values were 3-12 times higher than the other tested fruit seed flours. Furthermore, the ORAC value was significantly correlated to the TPC under the experimental conditions (P < 0.05). These fruit seed flours also differed in their TAC values and Fe(2+)-chelating capacities. In addition, black raspberry, cranberry, and chardonnay grape seed flour extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects using HT-29 colon cancer cells. All three tested seed flour extracts significant inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation. The data from this study suggest the potential of developing the value-added use of these fruit seed flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal human health.
PMID: 16719495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cranberry phytochemicals: Isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities.
He X ,
Liu RH .
Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University , Ithaca , New York 14853-7201 , USA .
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of cranberries was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Twenty compounds were isolated using gradient solvent fractionation, silica gel and ODS columns, and preparative RP-HPLC. Their chemical structures were identified using HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Antiproliferative activities of isolated compounds against HepG2 human liver cancer and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were evaluated. Among the compounds isolated, ursolic acid, quercetin, and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 cell growth, with EC50 values of 87.4 +/- 2.7, 40.9 +/- 1.1, and 49.2 +/- 4.9 microM, respectively. Ursolic acid, quercetin, and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, with EC50 values of 11.7 +/- 0.1, 137.5 +/- 2.6, and 23.9 +/- 3.9 microM, respectively. Quercetin, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol-3-O-alpha-l-arabinofuranoside showed potent antioxidant activities, with EC50 values of approximately 10 microM. These results showed cranberry phytochemical extracts have potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.
PMID: 16968064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Sun J ,
Hai Liu R .
Department of Food Science, Cornell University , 108 Stocking Hall, Ithaca , NY 14853-7201 , USA .
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the US and is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer. Epidemiological studies have consistently suggested the inverse association between cancer risk and intake of fruits and vegetables. These health benefits have been linked to the additive and synergistic combination of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. Cranberries have been shown to possess anti-carcinogenic activities such as inhibition of growth of several cancer cell lines, and inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer properties of cranberry phytochemical extracts have not been completely understood. Our data showed that cranberry phytochemical extracts significantly inhibited human breast cancer MCF-7 cell proliferation at doses of 5 to 30mg/mL (P<0.05). Apoptotic induction in MCF-7 cells was observed in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to cranberry phytochemical extracts for 4h. Cranberry phytochemical extracts at a dose of 50mg/mL resulted in a 25% higher ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Cranberry phytochemical extracts at doses from 10 to 50mg/mL significantly arrested MCF-7 cells at G0/G1 phase (P<0.05). A constant increasing pattern of the G1/S index was observed in the cranberry extract treatment group while the G1/S ratio of the control group decreased concomitantly between 10 and 24h treatment. After 24-h exposure to cranberry extracts, the G1/S index of MCF-7 cells was approximately 6 times higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that cranberry phytochemical extracts possess the ability to suppress the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to both the initiation of apoptosis and the G1 phase arrest.
PMID: 16377076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry Extracts Inhibit Growth and Stimulate Apoptosis of Human Cancer Cells In Vitro.
Seeram NP ,
Adams LS ,
Zhang Y ,
Lee R ,
Sand D ,
Scheuller HS ,
Heber D .
Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California , Los Angeles , California 90095 .
Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries&sbd;blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry&sbd;were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 &mgr;g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models. Keywords: Berries; polyphenols; antiproliferative; apoptosis; cancer.
PMID: 17147415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture.
Mehta R ,
Lansky EP .
Department of Surgical Oncology, College of Medicine , University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago , Illinois , USA .
We previously reported anticancer effects of pomegranate extracts in human breast cancer cells in vitro and also chemopreventive activity of pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W) in a mouse mammary organ culture (MMOC). In the present study we decided to expand the MMOC investigations to also include an evaluation of the potential chemopreventive efficacy of a purified chromatographic peak of W (Peak B), and also of whole pomegranate seed oil. In brief, an MMOC was established according to a known method. For the first 10 days of culture, the glands were treated with pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W), a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) peak separated from W (peak B), or pomegranate seed oil (Oil, and on day 3, exposed to the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and for 10 days treated with the putative pomegranate chemopreventive. The glands were subsequently harvested and tumours counted by visual inspection. While W effected a 42% reduction in the number of lesions compared with control, peak B and pomegranate seed oil each effected an 87% reduction. The results highlight enhanced breast cancer preventive potential both for the purified compound peak B and for pomegranate seed oil, both greater than that previously reported for pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols.
PMID: 15554563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]