Change in Oncoplex:

Patients who have been taking Oncoplex capsules will notice changes in appearance in the coming months.  Our manufacturer is switching to a stronger concentrate.  The milligram per capsule dose will decrease from 500 to 400 mg.  The content of active sulforaphane glucosinolate will remain the same at 30 mg per capsule.  Xymogen, the company that supplies us with this product is now the exclusive supplier of this extract as licensed by Johns Hopkins.  This is all good news for us.  The bad news is that apparently, the newer, stronger extract has a more apparent odor.

Here is the text of a newsletter written on this product last summer.  If you don’t recall reading it, this is because I don’t recall ever sending it out:

DNC News:  Broccoli Sprout extract in pill form

Jacob Schor, ND, FABNO

February 2008

Subject:  It has been more than a decade since we first started promoting broccoli sprouts for their cancer fighting properties. In a turn around of previous advice, we are now suggesting that patients use pills to get this nutrient.

Something in cruciferous vegetables protects animals from cancer; we have known this for decades. In 1992, scientists from Johns Hopkins University identified the active constituent in these vegetables responsible for this action, a chemical called sulforaphane.   Broccoli contains more of this sulforaphane than the other cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, cabbage or Brussels sprouts).     It turns out that small, couple of day old broccoli seed sprouts contain the more sulforaphane by weight than full grown broccoli.  By weight, these little seedlings contain between 10 to 100 times as much sulforaphane in them as full-grown broccoli does.   Furthermore, the sprouts contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which is common in the mature vegetable and may degrade to chemicals that stimulate cancer growth.   Thus, one ounce of sprouts provides the equivalent anti cancer effect of ten to one hundred ounces of fresh broccoli.  In the last few years, research on these little sprouts and the chemicals they contain has exploded.  As of May 2007, PubMed lists 297 papers on ‘sulforaphane.’

Most of the research interest focuses on sulforaphane’s effect on cancer but there are papers on other disease conditions, especially ones related to chronic inflammation.  These include, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease,  hypertension, elevated cholesterol, stomach ulcers and vision problems.  Still, the majority of the studies are about cancer.

Bladder Cancer

In December 2006, scientists from New Zealand reported that feeding rats broccoli sprouts concentrates sulforaphane in the bladder which then acted on the bladder cells in a way that would be protective against cancer and without any suggestion of unwanted toxicity.   In 2004, these same researchers had published finding that sulforaphane both prevented and slowed the growth of bladder cancer.

Breast Cancer:

Although there have been a number of early  studies on breast cancer, the most recent study published March 7 measured sulforaphane binding to mammary tissue after just a single dose of broccoli sprouts.   Earlier studies from 1997 and 2000 demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented carcinogens from triggering cancer in breast tissue.

   

Colon Cancer

Up until 2000, the sulforaphane research focused on protection from cancer. This protection resulted from  stimulation of the  body's own antioxidant and detoxification system. This system, comprised of what we call Phase 2 Enzymes, eliminates carcinogens from the body before they can cause DNA damage. This action protects healthy cells from cancer triggering chemicals.

A paper in the March 2000 issue of Cancer Research reported for the first time that sulforaphane can cause cancer cells to self-destruct, that is it triggers programmed cell death or apoptosis.   Research that is more recent reports on the genetic mechanisms by which these broccoli chemicals work.

Liver Cancer

Giving broccoli sprouts to humans exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants increase their livers’ capacity to detoxify these potential carcinogens.

Lung Cancer

In a September 2005 issue of Cancer Research, scientists reported that sulforaphane could prevent the benign tumors produced by a cigarette smoke from developing into full-blown lung cancer in mice.  The animals were exposed to the carcinogens before the sulforaphane.   This demonstrated that sulforaphane doesn’t just protect against cancer but also inhibits disease progression by reducing proliferation and causing apoptosis. This suggests that sulforaphane might be useful among people already exposed to tobacco carcinogens.  

A May 2006 paper suggests that sulforaphane may be helpful at preventing lung metastasis.  In this paper, it worked very well in mice, decreasing lung metastasis by over 95%.   A 2005 paper reported that sulforaphane enhanced apoptosis in rapidly dividing lung cancer cells.   The most recent lung related article is one saying that sulforaphane inhibits cytokine production in airway cells triggered by diesel fumes.

The amount of research is overwhelming,

Once upon a time, when I first wrote about broccoli sprouts, one could read the dozen existing papers.   There have been over 100 published papers in the last 2 years.  Here are the sort of blurbs that get my attention:

  • “Sulforaphane may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers, including those characterized by increased inflammation.” (Cancer Lett. 2006 Feb 28;233(2):208-18 Oregon State University).
  • “There was a 95.5% inhibition of lung tumor nodule formation and a 94.06 increase in lifespan or tumor bearing animals. These findings suggest that sulforaphane reduced the invasion of melanoma cells thereby inhibiting lung metastasis.” (Life Sci, 2006 May 22;78(26):3043-50)
  • “The results of the present study indicate that sulforaphane induced cell death in prostate cancer cells.” (J Biol Chem 2005 May 20; 280(20):19911-24 University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute)
  • “Sulforaphane is a potent and promising naturally occurring dietary cancer chemoprotective compound that excerpts it cancer protective effects by the induction of phase 2 detoxification.” (Cancer Lett. 2006 Mar 2: Rutgers University)
  • “Sulforaphane potently induces phase 2 enzymes in bladder tissues and should be investigated as a bladder cancer preventive agent.” (BMC Cancer 2006 Mar 15;6:63 Stanford School of Medicine)
  • “Sulforaphane is known to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes, disrupt cancer cells, and trigger cell cycle arrest in breast and colon cancer cells .” (Vascul. Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 14 University of Georgia)
  • “We observed potent antiproliferative effects of sulforaphane on human ovarian cancer cell lines.” (Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Jan;6(1):334-4)
  • “Our data indicate that sulforaphane derived form broccoli suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.” (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;209(2):105-13.)
  • “Researchers have discovered that sulforaphane can halt human breast cancer cells in their tracks and have identified a new mechanism of action for the compound.” (Drug Discov Today. 2004 Nov 1;9(21):908)
  • Sulforaphane (SFN) is a biologically active phytochemical found abundantly in broccoli. SFN has been promoted as a putative chemopreventive agent to reduce cancer, and most studies have associated its anti-cancer effects with the induction of phase II xenobiotic metabolism enzymes.” (Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;71(1):220-9. Epub 2006 Oct 6. University of Washington)
  • “In conclusion, the results show, for the first time, that chemopreventive agents such as sulforaphane regulate different set of genes involving apoptosis, cell growth/maintenance and inflammation in the small intestinal polyps of ApcMin/+ mice, which could contribute to the overall chemopreventive pharmacological effects.” (Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006 Dec;27(9):407-20 Rutgers Univ.)
  • “Our results indicated activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in glioblastoma cells following treatment with sulforaphane.” (Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1;141(3):1265-80. Epub 2006 Jun 12. Medical University of South Carolina)

Switching from Sprouts to Pills:

As much as I have promoted people eating broccoli sprouts over the last ten years, we are changing our policy with cancer patients. 

There are two reasons.  First, people rarely eat as many sprouts as we tell them to.    Second, our local sprout grower here in Denver has ended their business relationship with Johns Hopkins University and is no longer using the patented seed line or having the sulforaphane content of their sprouts monitored.  Their sprouts may still be high in sulforaphane, or they might not be.   We just don’t know.  Given how urgently we wish to see benefit for this patient group, this is unacceptable.

Sulforaphane glucosinalate derived from broccoli sprouts is now available in pill form under license from Johns Hopkins University.  This chemical extract is the one used in all of the current research studies.  Each pill contains 30 mg of the sulforaphane, the approximate amount found in an ounce of broccoli sprouts.  We are suggesting that patients take from 1-4 capsules a day.

Help us find a name for our own label

We feel that this is such a worthwhile supplement that we have contracted to pack it under our own label. There is one hold up in having this done.  We are debating what to name these broccoli sprout pills.  Calling them “Denver Broccos” has been nixed by a lawyer specializing in trademarks.  We are open to suggestions.  Until we come up with a winning name, we are buying this product from a company called Xymogen which calls them Oncoplex capsules.  Oh, and yes we have considered just calling them Broccoli Sprout pills.  Or BS for short, so that when people call they can say, “I want some more of Doctor Schor’s BS.”

 High Levels of SGS Found in Broccoli Sprouts

figure

The researchers discovered that young broccoli sprouts, grown from the seeds of certain varieties of broccoli, can be produced under carefully standardized conditions to contain consistently high concentrations of SGS. Researchers found that, on average, one ounce of these special sprouts provided as much SGS as 1 1/4 pounds (20 ounces) of mature, cooked broccoli (20 times the concentration). In addition there is a new delivery system you can achieve 30 mg of SGS, equal to 1 ¼ pounds of broccoli from 1 capsule of  concentrated sulforaphane glucosinalates.

Chemoprotection

Johns Hopkins initial research targeted the potential chemoprotective effects of certain vegetable varieties. "Chemoprotection is a deliberate effort to increase the body's defense systems against chemicals, including carcinogens, that can lead to disease," according to Dr. Talalay, Chief researcher at Johns Hopkins University. "Chemoprotection may lower a person's risk of developing cancer by building up the body's own defense." Dr. Talalay's strategy of chemoprotection takes advantage of the body's Phase 2 detoxification enzymes that help neutralize cancer-causing chemicals, as well as free radicals, before they can damage DNA and initiate the development of cancer. As part of this research strategy Johns Hopkins University isolated and identified sulforaphane, a natural compound found in broccoli. They found sulforaphane to be the most potent booster of Phase 2 enzymes, which stimulate the ability of animal cells to protect against disease.

Antioxidant Activity of Sulforaphane

Sulforaphane exists in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. In its precursor form, sulforaphane glucosinolate (SGS) functions as an indirect antioxidant. As such, this compound does not directly neutralize free radicals as do direct antioxidants like vitamins E and C and beta-carotene. Indirect antioxidants induce (or boost) the activity of the Phase 2 detoxification enzymes. According to Dr. Talalay, "These enzymes act as a defense mechanism, triggering broad spectrum antioxidant activity that neutralizes many free radicals, cycling over and over again before they can cause the cell damage that may cause mutations, leading to cancer." Furthermore, the effects of these indirect antioxidants remain even after they have left the body - unlike direct antioxidants, which neutralize only one molecule of a radical at a time, and are destroyed in the process. The indirect antioxidant effects are long-lasting, triggering an ongoing process that continues to be effective and  may last for 2 days.

New science is showing that certain foods, like broccoli sprouts, contain compounds that are able to selectively boost only the Phase II enzymes. These compounds, such as sulforaphane, are called monofunctional inducers. Thus, it is becoming at least theoretically possible to find a diet that strikes a perfect balance, producing two desirable effects at the same time: inhibiting Phase I enzymes, which minimizes the excess number of carcinogens produced, and increasing Phase II enzymes, which makes the body better able to defend itself from cancer.

The Latest Cancer Research

Most recently, researchers from the U.S. and Europe have further examined the effects of SGS in cancer models. There have been more than 100 published clinical trials in the last 2 years alone.

  • “Sulforaphane may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers, including those characterized by increased inflammation”. (Cancer Lett. 2006 Feb 28;233(2):208-18 Oregon State University).
  • “There was a 95.5% inhibition of lung tumor nodule formation and a 94.06 increase in lifespan or tumor bearing animals. These findings suggest that sulforaphane reduced the invasion of melanoma cells thereby inhibiting lung metastasis.” (Life Sci, 2006 May 22;78(26):3043-50)
  • “The results of the present study indicate that sulforaphane induced cell death in prostate cancer cells.” (J Biol Chem 2005 May 20; 280(20):19911-24 University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute)
  • “Sulforaphane is a potent and promising naturally occurring dietary cancer chemoprotective compound that excerpts it cancer protective effects by the induction of phase 2 detoxification.” (Cancer Lett. 2006 Mar 2: Rutgers University)
  • “Sulforaphane potently induces phase 2 enzymes in bladder tissues and should be investigated as a bladder cancer preventive agent.” (BMC Cancer 2006 Mar 15;6:63 Stanford School of Medicine)
  • “Sulforaphane is known to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes, disrupt cancer cells, and trigger cell cycle arrest in breast and colon cancer cells .” (Vascul. Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 14 University of Georgia)
  • “We observed potent antiproliferative effects of sulforaphane on human ovarian cancer cell lines.” (Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Jan;6(1):334-4)
  • “Our data indicate that sulforaphane derived form broccoli suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.” (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;209(2):105-13.)
  • “Researchers have discovered that sulforaphane can halt human breast cancer cells in their tracks and have identified a new mechanism of action for the compound.” (Drug Discov Today. 2004 Nov 1;9(21):908)
  • Sulforaphane (SFN) is a biologically active phytochemical found abundantly in broccoli. SFN has been promoted as a putative chemopreventive agent to reduce cancer, and most studies have associated its anti-cancer effects with the induction of phase II xenobiotic metabolism enzymes.” (Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;71(1):220-9. Epub 2006 Oct 6. University of Washington)
  • “In conclusion, the results show, for the first time, that chemopreventive agents such as sulforaphane regulate different set of genes involving apoptosis, cell growth/maintenance and inflammation in the small intestinal polyps of ApcMin/+ mice, which could contribute to the overall chemopreventive pharmacological effects.” (Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006 Dec;27(9):407-20 Rutgers Univ.)
  • “Our results indicated activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in glioblastoma cells following treatment with sulforaphane.” (Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 1;141(3):1265-80. Epub 2006 Jun 12. Medical University of South Carolina)

Conclusion

The Johns Hopkins strategy and discoveries are consistent with what many epidemiologic studies have shown: Many cancers may be related to lifestyle or extrinsic factors and are, therefore, in principle, preventable. Johns Hopkins researchers continue to focus on SGS and other compounds from edible plants that may have potential chemoprotective effects.

Where can you get OncoPlex-Sulforaphane Glucosinalates

The Johns Hopkins University has partnered with Xymogen, one of the leading professional nutraceutical companies in the industry to market sulforaphane. Sulforaphane SGS is marketed under the name OncoPlex SGS by Xymogen and can be purchased exclusively through health care providers nationwide. In addition OncoPlex SGS can be ordered by calling (800)647-6100. Please notify the customer service representative you would like order OncoPlex under the account code “SGS”. As a special service to subscribers you will get a 10% discount. Dosage for OncoPlex ranges between 1-8 capsules daily depending upon condition. Price $31.90 for 30 caps and $71.00 for 120 caps.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2399-403.

Related Articles, Links

Click here to read Click here to read 
A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure.

Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

Consumption of vegetables, especially crucifers, reduces the risk of developing cancer. Although the mechanisms of this protection are unclear, feeding of vegetables induces enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism and thereby accelerates the metabolic disposal of xenobiotics. Induction of phase II detoxication enzymes, such as quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2] and glutathione S-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18) in rodent tissues affords protection against carcinogens and other toxic electrophiles. To determine whether enzyme induction is responsible for the protective properties of vegetables in humans requires isolation of enzyme inducers from these sources. By monitoring quinone reductase induction in cultured murine hepatoma cells as the biological assay, we have isolated and identified (-)-1-isothiocyanato-(4R)-(methylsulfinyl)butane [CH3-SO-(CH2)4-NCS, sulforaphane] as a major and very potent phase II enzyme inducer in SAGA broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica). Sulforaphane is a monofunctional inducer, like other anticarcinogenic isothiocyanates, and induces phase II enzymes selectively without the induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent cytochromes P-450 (phase I enzymes). To elucidate the structural features responsible for the high inducer potency of sulforaphane, we synthesized racemic sulforaphane and analogues differing in the oxidation state of sulfur and the number of methylene groups: CH3-SOm-(CH2)n-NCS, where m = 0, 1, or 2 and n = 3, 4, or 5, and measured their inducer potencies in murine hepatoma cells. Sulforaphane is the most potent inducer, and the presence of oxygen on sulfur enhances potency. Sulforaphane and its sulfide and sulfone analogues induced both quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities in several mouse tissues. The induction of detoxication enzymes by sulforaphane may be a significant component of the anticarcinogenic action of broccoli.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.

Related Articles, Links

Click here to read Click here to read 
Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens.

Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P.

Brassica Chemoprotection Laboratory and Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen. Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a striking reduction in the risk of developing a variety of malignancies, it is of interest that a number of edible plants contain substantial quantities of compounds that regulate mammalian enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, edible plants belonging to the family Cruciferae and genus Brassica (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) contain substantial quantities of isothiocyanates (mostly in the form of their glucosinolate precursors) some of which (e.g., sulforaphane or 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) are very potent inducers of phase 2 enzymes. Unexpectedly, 3-day-old sprouts of cultivars of certain crucifers including broccoli and cauliflower contain 10-100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin (the glucosinolate of sulforaphane) than do the corresponding mature plants. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates can be efficiently extracted from plants, without hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase, by homogenization in a mixture of equal volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and acetonitrile at -50 degrees C. Extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts (containing either glucoraphanin or sulforaphane as the principal enzyme inducer) were highly effective in reducing the incidence, multiplicity, and rate of development of mammary tumors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated rats. Notably, sprouts of many broccoli cultivars contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis. Hence, small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect against the risk of cancer as effectively as much larger quantities of mature vegetables of the same variety.

Publication Types:


PMID: 9294217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

induction of GST and NQO1 in Cultured Bladder Cells and in the Urinary Bladders of Rats by an Extract of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) Sprouts (#)

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9370-9376.
Yuesheng Zhang, Rex Munday, Hillary E. Jobson, Christine M. Munday, Carolyn Lister, Paula Wilson, Jed W. Fahey, and Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia
doi:10.1021/jf062109h
PubMed ID: 17147420

Isothiocyanates in the chemoprevention of bladder cancer

Curr Drug Metab. 2004 Apr;5(2):193-201.
Tang L, Zhang Y.
PubMed ID: 15078196

Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cells

J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):2004-10
Tang L, Zhang Y.
PubMed ID: 15284390

Carcinogenesis. 2007 Mar 7; [Epub ahead of print]

Related Articles, Links

Click here to read 
Preclinical and Clinical Evaluation of Sulforaphane for Chemoprevention in the Breast.

Cornblatt BS, Ye L, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Erb M, Fahey JW, Singh NK, Chen MS, Stierer T, Garrett-Meyer E, Argani P, Davidson NE, Talalay P, Kensler TW, Visvanathan K.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

Consumers of higher levels of Brassica vegetables, particularly those of the genus Brassica (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage), reduce their susceptibility to cancer at a variety of organ sites. Brassica vegetables contain high concentrations of glucosinolates that can be hydrolyzed by the plant enzyme, myrosinase, or intestinal microflora to isothiocyanates, potent inducers of cytoprotective enzymes and inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Oral administration of either the isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, or its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis in rats treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In this study we sought to determine whether sulforaphane exerts a direct chemopreventive action on animal and human mammary tissue. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 150 mumol oral dose of sulforaphane were evaluated in the rat mammary gland. We detected sulforaphane metabolites at concentrations known to alter gene expression in cell culture. Elevated cytoprotective NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene transcripts were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. An observed 3-fold increase in NQO1 enzymatic activity, as well as 4-fold elevated immunostaining of HO-1 in rat mammary epithelium, provides strong evidence of a pronounced pharmacodynamic action of sulforaphane. In a subsequent pilot study, eight healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty were given a single dose of a broccoli sprouts preparation containing 200 mumol of sulforaphane. Following oral dosing, sulforaphane metabolites were readily measurable in human breast tissue enriched for epithelial cells. These findings provide a strong rationale for evaluating the protective effects of a broccoli sprouts preparation in clinical trials of women at risk for breast cancer.

PMID: 17347138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and 1,6-dinitropyrene-DNA adduct formation in human mammary epithelial cells by dibenzoylmethane and sulforaphane (#)

Cancer Letters 2000 July 3; 155(1):47-54.
Singletary K, MacDonald C.
PubMed ID: 10814878

Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens (#)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 10367-10372, September 16, 1997.
Jed W. Fahey, Yuesheng Zhang, and Paul Talalay
PubMed ID: 9294217

Chemoprevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci in Fischer rats by major isothiocyanates in watercress and broccoli. (#)

Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research, March 2000; 41:660.
Chung F-L, Conaway CC, Rao CV, Reddy BS.
PubMed ID: 11133820

Sulforaphane, A Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in HT29 Human Colon Cancer Cells (#)

Cancer Research. 2000 March 1; 60(5):1426-1433.
Gamet-Payrastre L, Li P, Lumeau S, Cassar G, Dupont MA, Chevolleau S, Gase N, Tulliez J, Terçé F.
PubMed ID: 10728709

Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and suppresses tumorigenesis in Apcmin mice (#)

FASEB Journal Express. Published online January 11, 2006.
Melinda C. Myzak, W. Mohaiza Dashwood, Gayle A. Orner, Emily Ho, and Roderick H. Dashwood
doi:10.1096/fj.05-4785fje
PubMed ID: 16407454

Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo Township, Qidong, PRC (#)

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Nov 2005; 14(11).
Kensler, T.W., Chen, J-G., Egner, P.A., Fahey, J.W., Jacobson, L.P., Stephenson, K.K., Ye, X., Coady, J.L.,Wang, J-B., Wu, Y., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q-N., Zhang, B-C., Zhu, Y-R., Qian, G-S., Carmella, S.G., Hecht, S.S., Benning, L., Gange, S.J., Groopman, J.D. and Talalay, P.
PubMed ID: 16284385
(Related press release)

Phenethyl Isothiocyanate and Sulforaphane and their N-Acetylcysteine Conjugates Inhibit Malignant Progression of Lung Adenomas Induced by Tobacco Carcinogens in A/J Mice. (#)

Cancer Res. 65: (18) 8548-8557.
Conaway, C, Wang, C-X, Pittman, B, Yang, Y-M, Schwartz, J, Tian, D, McIntee, E, Hecht, S, Chung, F-L.
PubMed ID: 16166336

Antimetastatic activity of Sulforaphane.

Life Science 2006 May 22; 78(26):3043-50.
Thejass P, Kuttan G.
doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.038
PubMed ID: 16600309

N-Acetylcysteine Conjugate of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Enhances Apoptosis in Growth-Stimulated Human Lung Cells.

Cancer Research. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8538-47.
Yang-Ming Yang, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Joel Schwartz, C. Clifford Conaway, H. Dorota Halicka, Frank Traganos and Fung-Lung Chung.
PubMed ID: 16166335

Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L33-L39, 2007
Ritz SA, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D
doi:10.1152/ajplung.00170.2006
PubMed ID: 16905640