DNC News

Vitamin D Summary:

Subject: Vitamin D deficiency is common and linked to a wide range of conditions.

Conditions associated with Vitamin D deficiency:

Multiple Sclerosis [1]

Rheumatoid arthritis [2]

Hypertension [3] [4]

Depression [5]

Heart attacks [6]

Congestive heart failure [7] [8]

Insulin resistance [9]

Type I Diabetes (Insulin Dependent) [10]

Type II Diabetes (Non-Insulin Dependent) [11]

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) [12]

Menstrual Migraines [13] [14]

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) [15]

Menopausal symptoms: vaginal atrophy [16]

Musculoskeletal pain [17]

Back pain [18] [19]

Breast Caner [20]

Colon Cancer [21] [22]

Prostate Cancer [23] [24] [25]

Pancreatic Cancer [26]

Ovarian Cancer [27]

Osteoporosis [28] [29]

Osteomalacia and Rickets

Cancer: “annual number of premature deaths from cancer due to lower UV-B exposures was 21,700 for white Americans, 1400 for black Americans, and 500 for Asian Americans and other minorities.” [30]


Vitamin D is tested using a 25(OH)D serum measurement. Standard lab values are inadequate for assessing a person's status as the normal subjects used to determine these values were free of rickets but not measured for current signs of D deficiency.


We are using the following values to interpret 25(OH)D test results:

Deficient: < 20 ng/mL

Insufficient: < 30 ng/mL

Optimal: 40-65 ng/mL

Excess: > 80 ng/mL


Doses for treating Deficiency:

Men 4,000 IU/day

Pregnant women 1-4,000 IU/day

Children 1,000 IU/day



For more information:


Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis :


Vitamin D and cardiovascular Disease and high blood pressure:


Vitamin D and Diabetes :


Vitamin D and Falling in Elderly populations :


Vitamin D and Cancer:


Vitamin D: Migraine Headaches, PolyCystic Ovary Disease, Seasonal Affective Disorder, and Chronic backpain etc.:


Vitamin D: testing for deficiency and doses for treatment:




[1] Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1):60-5. Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, Hernan MA, Olek MJ, Willett WC, Ascherio A.

[2] Merlino, L. A. et al. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 50, 72 - 77, (2004).

[3] Br J Nutr. 2003 May;89(5):552-72. Vitamin D in preventive medicine: are we ignoring the evidence? Zittermann A.

[4] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1633-7. [link to free text of this article] Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Nachtigall D, Hansen C.

[5] BMC Dermatol. 2002 Apr 12;2(1):6. Impact of UVA exposure on psychological parameters and circulating serotonin and melatonin. Gambichler T, Bader A, Vojvodic M, Bechara FG, Sauermann K, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K.

[6] Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Sep;19(3):559-63.

Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study . Scragg R, Jackson R, Holdaway IM, Lim T, Beaglehole R.

[7] J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jan 1;41(1):105-12. Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure? Zittermann A, Schleithoff SS, Tenderich G, Berthold HK, Korfer R, Stehle P.

[8] Acta Paediatr. 1995 Jan;84(1):106-8. Congestive heart failure caused by vitamin D deficiency? Brunvand L, Haga P, Tangsrud SE, Haug E.

[9] Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):820-5. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VL, Saad MF.

[10] Lancet. 2001 Nov 3;358(9292):1500-3. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM.

[11] Bone Miner. 1986 Jun;1(3):187-92. Effect of 1 alpha (OH)-vitamin D3 on insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus.

Inomata S, Kadowaki S, Yamatani T, Fukase M, Fujita T.

[12] Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Feb;135(4):319-23. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter . Lansdowne AT, Provost SC

[13] Headache. 1994 Oct;34(9):544-6. Vitamin D and calcium in menstrual migraine. Thys-Jacobs S.

[14] Headache. 1994 Nov-Dec;34(10):590-2. Alleviation of migraines with therapeutic vitamin D and calcium.

Thys-Jacobs S.

[15] Steroids. 1999 Jun;64(6):430-5. Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thys-Jacobs S, Donovan D, Papadopoulos A, Sarrel P, Bilezikian JP.

[16] Maturitas. 2004 Dec 10;49(4):334-7. The effects of postmenopausal Vitamin D treatment on vaginal atrophy. Yildirim B, Kaleli B, Duzcan E, Topuz O.

[17] Nutr Rev. 2004 Sep;62(9):354-9.    Hypovitaminosis D-induced pain. Mascarenhas R, Mobarhan S.

[18] Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1463-70.

Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Plotnikoff GA , Quigley JM.

[19] Spine. 2003 Jan 15;28(2):177-9. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia .

Al Faraj S, Al Mutairi K.

[20] Cancer. 2002 Jan 1;94(1):272-81. An ecologic study of dietary and solar ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates. Grant WB

[21] Int J Epidemiol. 1980 Sep;9(3):227-31. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer ? Garland CF, Garland FC.

[22] Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jul;54(1 Suppl):193S-201S. Can colon cancer incidence and death rates be reduced with calcium and vitamin D? Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED.

[23] Cancer. 1992 Dec 15;70(12):2861-9. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG

[24] Lancet. 2001 Aug 25;358(9282):641-2. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: association with susceptibility and age at presentation with prostate cancer . Luscombe CJ, Fryer AA, French ME, Liu S, Saxby MF, Jones PW, Strange RC.

[25] Cancer. 1992 Dec 15;70(12):2861-9. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG

[26] Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun;25(6):1015-26. Epub 2004 Jan 23. Pancreatic cancer cells express 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Schwartz GG, Eads D, Rao A, Cramer SD, Willingham MC, Chen TC, Jamieson DP, Wang L, Burnstein KL, Holick MF, Koumenis C.

[27] Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 20;108(3):367-73.

Role of 24-hydroxylase in vitamin D3 growth response of OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Miettinen S, Ahonen MH, Lou YR, Manninen T, Tuohimaa P, Syvala H, Ylikomi T.

[28] Pharmacol Res. 2004 Dec;50(6):637-41.

Effect of supplementation of calcium and Vitamin D on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in peri- and post-menopause women; A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Daniele ND, Carbonelli MG, Candeloro N, Iacopino L, De Lorenzo A, Andreoli A.

[29] Endocr Rev. 2002 Aug;23(4):560-9. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VIII: Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Papadimitropoulos E, Wells G, Shea B, Gillespie W, Weaver B, Zytaruk N, Cranney A, Adachi J, Tugwell P, Josse R, Greenwood C, Guyatt G; Osteoporosis Methodology Group and The Osteoporosis Research Advisory Group.

[30] Cancer. 2002 Mar 15;94(6):1867-75. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

Grant WB.


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